CD 항원 (Cluster of differentiation)

CD 분자는 백혈구 표면에 존재하는 분자로 세포를 동정하거나 연구목적으로 사용되는데 특정 항체에 의해 인식된다. CD 분자는 여러가지 방법으로 기능을 발휘 하는데 수용체(receptor) 또는 리간드(ligand), 즉 수용체를 활성화 시키는 분자로 작용한다. 

 

또한 신호전달체계(signal cascade)가 개시되면서 세포작용을 변화시키기도 한다. 어떤 CD 단백은 세포신호전달(cell signalling)에 역할을 하지 못하지만 세포부착(cell adhesion)과 같은 다른 기능을 수행한다. 지금까지 CD 분자는 끊임없이 밝혀지면서 350번까지 번호가 부여되어 있다.

 

명명법 (Nomenclature)


CD  명명법은 1982년 파리에서 개최된 HLDA (human leukocyte differentiation antigen)에 관한 제1차 국제 워크숍과 콘프런스에서 제안되고 정립한 것이다. 이 명명법 체계는 세계 도처의 연구실에서 만들어낸 백혈구 표면분자에 대한 수많은 단일클론항체(monoclonal antibody, mAbs)를 분류할 목적으로 제정되었다. 그 후 다른 많은 세포에도 확대하여 320 종류 이상의 독특한 클러스터(cluster)와 subcluster를 동정하였다.

 

제시된 세포표면 분자는 일단 두가지의 단일클론항체가 결합한다면 이 분자에 CD 번호가 부여된다.  분자의 특성을 밝히지 못하거나 하나의 단일클론항체만 결합한다면 잠정적으로 "w"라는 부호를 붙여준다(예 CDw186). 단일클론항체(monoclonal antibodies; mAb)는 모두 동일한 항체다. 같은 형태의 면역세포에서 생성되기 때문이며 단 하나의 모세포(parent cell)에서 유래한 세포군이다. 항원은 면역반응을 자극하여 항체 생산을 유발하는 물질이다.

 

세포표지자 (Cell Marker)

 

CD 시스템은 통상적으로 세포표지자로 사용되어 세포표면에 존재하는 분자에 근거하여 세포들을 구분할 수 있게 된다. 이러한 표지자는 어떤 면역기능을 가진 세포와 관련지어 사용된다.  CD 분자는 유세포분석기(flow cytometry)를 비롯한 여러가지 방법을 사용하여 세포를 정렬시키는데(cell sorting) 사용된다.  '+'  '–' 부호는 특정 CD 분자의 유무를 의미하는데,  예를 들면 "CD34+, CD31–" 세포는 CD34가 존재하고 CD31이 없음을 나타낸다.

 

가장 흔하게 언급되는 CD 분자는 CD4와 CD8인데, 이들은 일반적으로 조력(helper), 그리고 세포독성(cytotoxic) T세포에 대한 표지자로 사용된다. 이들 분자는 다른 백혈구에도 나타나기 때문에 CD3+와 조합하여 정의되기도 한다. 즉 수지상세포(dendritic cells)는 높은 수준의 CD8을 발현하고, 어떤 대식세포는 낮은 수준의 CD4를 나타낸다.  HIV는 T helper cell 표면에 있는 CD4 및 chemokine receptor와 결합하여 감염을 유발하고, 궁극적으로는 CD4+ T세포를 파괴한다. 이리하여 CD4+와 CD8+ T세포의 수 또는 상대적 비율이 HIV 감염의 진행 경과를 추적하는데 유용한 수단이 된다.

 

   List of human clusters of differentiation (CD항원 목록)

CD1

an MHC-like molecule that presents lipid molecules. T6

CD2

 

 

a type I transmembrane protein found on thymocytes, T cells, and some natural killer cells that acts as a ligand for CD58 and CD59 and is involved in signal transduction and cell adhesion; expressed in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia and T-cell lymphoma.

CD3

the signaling component of the T cell receptor(TCR) complex

CD4

a co-receptor for MHC Class II; also a receptor used by HIV to enter T cells

CD5

 

 

a type I transmembrane protein found on T cells, thymocytes, and some B cells that is a ligand for CD72 and is involved in cellular activation or adhesion; expressed in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia and T-cell lymphoma.

CD6

 

adhesion molecule linking developing thymus-cells to thymus epithelial cells; co-stimulator to mature T cells

CD7

 

 

 

a type I transmembrane protein found on thymocytes, some T cells, monocytes, natural killer cells, and hemopoietic stem cells; expressed in patients with mycosis fungoides, some patients with T-cell acute lymphoblastic lymphoma, and a few patients with acute nonlymphocytic lymphoma

CD8

a co-receptor for MHC Class I; also found on a subset of myeloid dendritic cells.

CD9

 

a member of the Tetraspaninsuperfamily expressed in a variety of cells, including: pre B cells, eosinophils, basophilsand platelets.

CD10

 

 

 

a type II transmembrane protein found on pre-B cells, germinal-center B cells, some neutrophils, kidney cells, T-cell precursors, and epithelial cells that acts as a zinc metalloprotease cleaving peptide bonds on the amino side of hydrophobic amino acids; expressed in acute lymphocytic leukemia and follicular-center-cell lymphomas. CALLA

CD11a

 

InTeGrin, Alpha L (ITGAL), the alpha subunit of LFA-1, a membrane glycoprotein that provides cell-cell adhesion by interaction with ICAM-1

CD11b

 

InTeGrin Alpha M (ITGAM), the alpha Subunit of Mac-1, a complement receptor ("CR3") consisting of CD11band CD18.

CD11c

 

 

 

 

InTeGrin Alpha X (ITGAX), the alpha subunit of (iC3b) receptor 4 (CR4). It is a type I transmembrane protein found on monocytes, macrophages, neutrophils, and some B cells that induces cellular activation and helps trigger neutrophil respiratory burst; expressed in hairy cell leukemias, acute nonlymphocytic leukemias, and some B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemias. Also one of the defining markers for dendritic cellsand hairy cell leukemiacells.

CD12w

 

phosphoprotein of unknown function present on monocytes, granulocytes, and NK cells and absent from basophils, AML blasts, and bone marrow precursors.

CD13

 

 

 

a zinc metalloproteinase, also known as aminopeptidase N, which is found naturally on myelomonocytic cells from early differentiation through maturity; usually present on acute myeloid leukemia blasts and rarely found in some forms of lymphoma and lymphocytic leukemia

CD14

Macrophage membrane protein which binds to bacterial lipopolysaccharide.

CD15

 

 

 

 

 

a carbohydrate adhesion molecule (not a protein) that mediates phagocytosis and chemotaxis, found on neutrophils; expressed in patients with Hodgkin disease, some B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemias, acute lymphoblastic leukemias, and most acute nonlymphocytic leukemias. It is also called Lewis x and SSEA-1 (stage specific embryonic antigen 1) and represents a marker for murine pluripotent stem cells, in which it plays an important role in adhesion and migration of the cells in the preimplantation embryo.

CD16

FcγRIII, a low-affinity Fc receptor for IgG. Found on NK cells, macrophages, and neutrophils.

CDw17

possible role in phagocytosis. Bacteria binding.

CD18

adhesion and signaling in the hematopoietic system.

CD19

B-lymphocyte surface antigen B4. PanB

CD20

 

 

 

a type III transmembrane protein found on B cells that forms a calcium channel in the cell membrane allowing for the influx of calcium required for cell activation; expressed in B-cell lymphomas, hairy cell leukemia, and B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Important for therapy of those diseases, as an antibody against CD20 exists: Rituximab

CD21

 

 

 

 

CR2, a type I transmembrane protein found in the cytoplasm of pre-B cells and on the surface of mature B cells, follicular dendritic cells, pharyngeal and cervical epithelial cells, some thymocytes, and some T cells that plays a role in signal transduction; expressed in hairy cell leukemia, B-cell lymphoma, and some T-cell acute lymphocytic leukemias. Receptor for complement (C3d) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV).

CD22

 

 

 

a sugar binding transmembrane protein that specifically binds sialic acid with an immunoglobulin (Ig) domain located at its N-terminus. It is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamilyand the SIGLECfamily. CD22 functions as an inhibitory receptor for B cell receptor (BCR) signalling.

CD23

 

 

a type II transmembrane protein found on mature B cells, monocytes, activated macrophages, eosinophils, platelets, and dendritic cells that enhances capture and processing of antigen complexed with IgE.

CD24

a glycoprotein expressed at the surface of most B lymphocytes and differentiating neuroblasts. This gene encodes a sialoglycoprotein that is expressed on mature granulocytes and in many B cells. The encoded protein is anchored via a glycosyl phosphatidylinositol (GPI) link to the cell surface. An alignment of this gene's sequence finds genomic locations with similarity on chromosomes 3p26, 15q21, 15q22, 20q11.2 and Yq11.1. Whether transcription, and corresponding translation, occurs at each of these other genomic locations needs to be experimentally determined (source: NCBI). Is also known as Heat Stable Antigen (HSA).

CD25

 

 

 

a type I transmembrane protein present on activated T cells, activated B cells, some thymocytes, myeloid precursors, and oligodendrocytes that associates with CD122 to form a heterodimer that can act as a high-affinity receptor for IL-2; expressed in most B-cell neoplasms, some acute nonlymphocytic leukemias, and neuroblastomas.

CD26

Membrane-bound protease. T-cell costimulatory molecule. Cell adhesion molecule

CD27

TNF-receptor. Present on the surface of resting memory B cells.

CD28

 

 

 

present on all T-cells, and when matched with the appropriate ligand, labeled B7 which can be either CD80 or CD86, it has costimulatory effecton the T-cell. It is also expressed on Eosinophil granulocytes, especially after tissue infiltration. There its ligation leads to release of potent neurotoxins, IL-2 and IL-13 as well as IFN-γ

CD29

AKA integrin beta-1 - a cell adhesion molecule.

CD30

 

 

a type I transmembrane protein present on activated T and B cells that may play a role in cell activation and/or differentiation; expressed in Hodgkin disease, some T-cell lymphomas, and anaplastic large cell lymphomas.

CD31

PECAM-1, a cell adhesion moleculeon plateletsand endothelialcells

CD32

FcγRII, a receptor for the Fc (constant) region of immunoglobulin G (IgG)

CD33

 

a marker of unknown function found on immature myeloid cells, including acute myeloid leukemia blasts and mature monocytes

CD34

 

stem cell marker, adhesion, found on hematopoietic precursors (found in high concentrations in umbilical cord blood, capillary endothelium, and embryonic fibroblasts

CD35

Complement receptor 1(CR1, C3b/C4b receptor)

CD36

Platelet glycoprotein IV or IIIb (GP IV / GP IIIb)

CD37

 

A leucocyterestricted tetraspaninexpressed primarily in B cells, but also found on T cells, Monocytesand Granulocytes.

CD38

 

 

involved in ecto-ADP-ribosyl cyclase and cell activation on many hematopoietic, plasma, and B& T activated cells; marker increases with HIV seroconversion, coexpression with CD8 associated with progression (indicates persistent viral stimulation)

CD40

 

a costimulatory protein found on antigen presenting cells. CD40 combines with CD154(CD40L) on T cells to induce antibody isotype switching in B cells.

CD41

 

 

The platelet glycoprotein (GPIIb/IIIa) integrin acts as a receptor for fibrinogen and several other extracellular matrix molecules. Its absence causes an extremely rare disorder of the blood known as Glanzmann's thrombasthenia.

CD42

 

 

 

the platelet Glycoprotein Ib/V/IX complex(GPIb/V/IX). Expressed on platelets and is a late, specific marker of megakaryocyte differentiation. The Glycoprotein Ib/V/IX complex is essential for normal haemostasis; deficiency results in Bernard-Soulier Syndrome, a syndrome of thrombocytopenia and giant platelets.

CD43

CD43 is a sialomucin.

CD44

 

 

A family of matrix adhesion molecules formed by alternative mRNA splicing, that adhere to hyaluronate, collagen, laminin, and fibronectin. Helps maintain polarization of epithelial cells. Found on bone marrow stromal cells and many other cells.

CD45

 

 

Leucocyte common antigen, a type I transmembrane protein present on all hemopoietic cells except erythrocytes that assists in cell activation; expressed in lymphomas, B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia, hairy cell leukemia, and acute nonlymphocytic leukemia.

CD46

Inhibitory complement receptor which is ubiquitously expressed on human cells.

CD47

Membrane protein, which is involved in the increase in intracellular calcium concentration that occurs upon cell adhesion to extracellular matrix.

CD48

CD48 is a human protein encoded by the CD48 gene.

CD49b

Very late antigen (VLA) alpha 2 chain; found on platelets and activated B and T cells.

CD49c

 

Very late antigen (VLA) alpha 3 chain; found on nonhematopoietic bone marrow cells. Receptor for collagen, laminin, fibronectin, and thrombospondin.

CD53

 

A leucocyterestricted tetraspaninexpressed by B cells, T cells, dendritic cells, monocytes, NK cellsand Granulocytes.

CD54

 

Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1): facilitates adhesion between leukocytes to endothelial cells during the immune and inflammatory responses

CD55

 

Complement Decay-Accelerating Factor (DAF): regulatory factor in one of the three pathways of the immune system complement cascade

CD56

 

 

 

 

 

140 kD isoform of NCAM(neural cell adhesion molecule), a marker for natural killer cells and some T-lymphocytes.

Typically, CD56 is weakly expressed on normal/polyclonal plasma cells (PCs) and strongly positive on the surface of myelomatous/clonal PCs (~60% of myeloma cases) and stromal cells. PC leukemia usually lacks on CD56, suggesting disease progression. It is a useful marker for follow-up of minimal residual disease.

CD58

 

a membrane protein present on many hemopoietic cells and fibroblasts that acts as a ligand for CD2 and may be involved in T-cell function.

CD59

 

Membrane attack complex inhibition factor (MACIF); MAC-inhibitory protein (MAC-IP); Antigen MEM43; Protectin: Immune system complement cascade regulatory factor

CD61

 

Integrin beta 3 (Itgb3); Glycoprotein IIIa (GPIIIa): fibrinogenreceptor; major role is in plateletaggregation. Defects in Itgb3 are causative for Glanzmann's thrombasthenia.

CD62E

 

E-selectin is a cell adhesion molecule expressed only on endothelial cells activated by cytokines.

CD62L

L-selectin is a cell adhesion molecule found on leukocytes.

CD62P

P-selectin is a cell adhesion molecule (CAM) found in granules in endothelial cells (cells lining blood vessels) and activated platelets.

CD63

 

CD64

Member of the Tetraspaninfamily expressed in activated platelets, monocytesand macrophages.

FcγRⅠ

CD68

 

 

 

 

110 kDa highly glycosylated transmembrane protein which is mainly located in lysosomes. Present in macrophages in many human tissues including Kupffer’s cells and macrophages in the red pulp of the spleen, in lung alveoli, in lamina propria of the gut, and in the bone marrow. Used as immunocytochemical marker for staining of monocytes/macrophages.

CD69

An early activation marker on T cells and NK cells.

CD71

Transferrinreceptor, mediates cellular uptake of iron

CD72

Mediator of B-cell - T-cell interactions

CD74

 

 

 

Transmembrane protein that assists and maintains the assembly of MHC-IIcomplexes in the ERuntil its loaded with peptide in Endosomes. Present in all professional APCsexpressing MHC-II. It is more commonly named "Invariant chain" and coded in the HLA-IIgene cluster.

CD80

 

 

when bound to CD28 on T-cells, can provide the costimulatory effect; also referred to as B7.1, one of the B7molecules. Causes up-regulation of a high affinity IL-2 receptor allowing T cells to proliferate.

CD81

 

 

A tetraspaninexpressed in a wide variety of tissues, which plays an important role in B cellsas part of the B cellco-receptor complex with CD19, Leu 13 and CD21. Also expressed in T cells, NK cells, Dendritic cells, Monocytesand blood progenitors.

CD82

 

Member of the tetraspaninfamily of transmembrane proteins. Broad tissue distribution including B cells, T cells, Granulocytes, Monocytesand CD34+ progenitors.

CD83

 

 

 

a 45 kDa transmembrane glycoprotein of the Ig superfamily. Expressed on cultured dendritic cells, interdigitating, follicular, and circulating dendritic cells as well as some proliferating lymphocyte of all human cell lines. Functionally unclear, but can serve as a useful marker for mature human blood dendritic cells.

CD86

 

 

when bound to CD28 on T-cells, can provide the costimulatory effect; also referred to as B7.2, one of the B7molecules. Causes up-regulation of a high affinity IL-2 receptor allowing T cells to proliferate.

CD87

 

also referred to as the urokinase type plasminogen activator receptor, provides a binding point for urokinase type plasminogen activator

CD88

C5a receptor

CD89

FcalphaRI - receptor for IgA

CD90

Thy-1 Thymus cell antigen.

CD91

 

 

Low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) (also known as α2-macroglobulin receptor), a major endocytotic receptor with over 35 known ligands including amyloid precursor protein (APP), ApoE, and many proteins involved with protease regulation

CD95

Fas Receptor- receptor for Fas ligand, an extrinsic apoptotic signal

CD96

 

CD100

also known as semaphorin 4D and is known as a potent proagiogenic molecule.

CD103

 

 

a type I transmembrane protein present on intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes, some circulating leukocytes, and some T cells that facilitates adhesion to epithelia; expressed in hairy cell leukemia and some B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemias.

CD105

 

Endoglin, a regulatory component of the TGF-beta receptor-cell complex. Mediates cellular response to TGFbeta.

CD106

VCAM-1; Alpha 4 beta 1 ligand. Adhesion molecule involved in white blood cell migration.

CD109

 

r150, Gov alloantigen, an accessory receptor of the TGF-beta signaling pathway. Mediates cellular response to TGFbeta. Presents Gov alloantigens and ABH blood antigens.

CD117

c-kit, the receptorfor Stem Cell Factor, a glycoproteinthat regulates cellular differentiation, particularly in hematopoiesis

CD120

CD126

a receptor for Tumour Necrosis Factor, an inflammatory cytokine

IL6R

CD127

the IL-7 receptor alpha chain

CD133

a hematopoietic and CNS stem cell marker. A 5 transmembrane domain protein, with no known function. Also known as AC133.

CD134

Also known as OX40; A T cell secondary costimulatory molecule which enances proliferation, cytokine production and survival.

CD135

Also known as fms-like tyrosine kinase receptor-3 (Flt3) or fetal liver kinase-2 (Flk2); A cytokine receptor for Flt3 ligand (Flt3L) important in early hematopoiesis.

CD138

Plasma cell-surface glycoprotein (heparan sulfate proteoglycan), known as syndecan-1. Syndecan functions as the alpha receptor for collagen, fibronectin and thrombospondin. Absent on plasmablasts but increases in expression in conjunction with PC maturation.

CD141

Thrombomodulinor BDCA-3, an integral membrane protein. On endothelialcells, it is involved in anticoagulation. It also occurs, with unknown function, on a very rare subtype of dendritic cells.

CD142

Tissue factor, a major initiator of blood-clotting

CD143

Angiotensin-converting enzyme

CD144

VE-Cadherin, a calcium-dependent adhesion molecule at intercellular junctions, found mainly in the vascular endothelium. Recent research indicates that CD144 may be present on some leucocyte sas well.

CD147

Neurothelin. An extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer.

CD151

Tetraspaninwith a wide tissue distribution, including platelets, Megakaryocytes, Granulocytes and erythroleukemia.

CD152

Also called Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4). Expressed in CD4+ T Lymphocytes but also found in some B Lymphocytes. Binds to CD80and CD86receptors with a higher affinity than CD28, and inhibits T cell activation.

CD154

The ligand for CD40. This is a costimulatory molecule that plays many roles, best known for activating B cells but also known to induce the activation of an APC in association with T cell receptor stimulation by MHC molecules on the APC.

CD156

A member of A Disinetgrin And Metalloprotease family ADAM8.

CD158

Killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) with two extracellular domains, variously expressed on NK cells. CD158a is KIR2DL1, CD158b is KIR2DL3, CD158d is KIR2DL4.

CD163

M130; HbSR; RM3/1 antigen. A glycoprotein endocytic scavenger receptor for haptoglobin-hemoglobin complexes. Found specifically on monocytes/macrophages and some dendritic cells. Involved in anti-iflammatory processes. Soluble form shed upon Toll-like receptor activation.

CD166

activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM).

CD168

receptor for hyaluronan-mediated motility (RHAMM).

CD184

CXCR4, Stromal Derived Factor 1 (SDF1). Receptor for the CXC chemokine SDF1. A receptor involved in mesenchymal stem cell homing and migration.

CDw186

CXCR6, a G-protein-coupled receptorfor the chemokineCXCL16

CD209

DC-SIGN, C-type lectinreceptor found on dendritic cell subsets

CD202a

Tie2, the receptor for angiopoietins, a family of angiogenicfactors

CD235a

Glycophorin, a proteinon bloodcells

CD271

is the p75 Nerve Growth factor receptor (NGFR)

CD303

BDCA-2, a type II transmembraneC-type lectinwhich is involved in endocytosisof antigensfor processingin plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Activation decreases type I interferonproduction.

CD304

Neuropilin-1 (NP-1) or BDCA-4, has a wide range of functions. On neurons, it is a receptor for axongrowth guidance class-3 semaphorinsSEMA3A and plexin-1, on endothelialand some tumor cells it is a VEGF receptor, and on plasmacytoid dendritic cellsit has a similar role to CD303 but does not decrease interferon production upon activation.

CD326

Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) or Tumor-associated calcium signal transducer 1 (TACSTD1). Expressed on epithelial cells and on many tumors; used as a target for anti-tumor drugs. CD326 is expressed in pluripotent stem cells.

 

  


 

Type of cell

 

CD markers

 

Stem cells

               CD34+, CD31-

all leukocyte            

CD45+

Granulocyte

CD45+, CD15+

Monocyte

CD45+, CD14+

T lymphocyte

CD45+, CD3+

T helper cell

CD45+, CD3+,   CD4+

Cytotoxic T cel

CD45+, CD3+,   CD8+

B lymphocyte

CD45+, CD19+, CD20+

Thrombocyte

CD45+, CD61+

Natural killer cell

               CD16+, CD56+, CD3-

 


 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 


 참고   The Immunology Link (Table of CD Antigens)

 

Posted by 가우너

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